What Kung Fu Panda taught me about teaching voice

by Grace Ng Ee Wern

 

Kungfu Panda tells the story of an unlikely martial arts hero named Po. He is an obese, clumsy panda. Adopted by a goose, Mr. Ping, as a baby panda, he is selected to be the Dragon Warrior- a hero amongst heroes, to the chagrin of his teacher and the martial arts community. This selection subsequently proves to be correct as he saves the day again and again.

 

Here are some lessons that I learnt from the movies:

 

  1. There are no accidents

Sometimes it seems that we get the most inept students in class. The same kids keep taking the module again and again, despite Singing seeming to be completely not their thing. Instead of losing your cool, understand that there is a reason why this kid is in your class in this moment. As much as there is a lesson for him or her, is there a lesson for you as a teacher to learn? The lesson may only unfold with the passing of time. Let it be. Let it go. Understand that everything is perfect now.

 

 

  1. You are not your Past

With the profusion of televised singing competitions and talent contests, everyone’s an expert on singing. Not being able to sing or worse, not being able to sing on pitch becomes a source of personal shame, a cause of low self-esteem. Singing is a learnt behavior. While the students may learn to sing and sing well, the scars of past hurts have to be addressed to heal. We are not what we can or can’t do. We are what we are and that is perfect.

 

 

 

  1. The Illusion of Control

As teachers, we want the best for our students. We want them to get into the best colleges and conservatories, to get great grades in their music examinations, to get the roles they audition for, to be successful in whatever they do. However as much as we get to decide where and when to plant the seeds, we cannot control how the plant grows. The plant will grow in its own time and at its own pace. So will our students. Our students come through us but are not from us. Let go, let fly and know that everything will be perfect in its time.

 

 

All materials are for educational purposes only. All copyrights belong to their respective copyright owners.

photo credit: <a href=”http://www.flickr.com/photos/125001784@N06/26689082602″>Giant Panda – Yang Guang</a> via <a href=”http://photopin.com”>photopin</a> <a href=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/”>(license)</a>

 

 

 

Jin Shin Jyutsu Cheat Sheet for Voice

by Grace Ng Ee Wern

Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy is a holistic Mind-Body healing modality. Energy flows through 26 invisible safety energy locks in the body. Disharmony in the Body and Mind occurs when safety energy locks lock up and energy cannot move. Disharmony manifests as excessive muscular tension, limited movement in the body and breath, feelings of stress and in some cases pain and discomfort.

 

Disharmony may be resolved by placing one’s hands on two safety energy locks and waiting for pulsation (from the vascular system) to come up to the hands and subside.

 

Here are some of my most effective ‘quickies’ (Jin Shin Jyutsu speak for ‘shortened version of a series of steps’) for the Voice. If you cannot feel pulsation under your hands, keep your hands in the positions indicated for a minimum of 2 minutes.

 

 

Shallow Breath, Hunching

The front of the body represents the Exhale- the ability to give and let go. Do this (Fig. 1) if you or your student has limited movement in the front of the body e.g. shallow breathing, limited movement in the ribs, tight abdominal muscles, tight throat.

 

Instructions: place your right hand on the junction where your neck meets your shoulders on the left side of the body. Place your left hand under your left buttock. Your hands are on safety energy locks 11 & 25 respectively. (With thanks to Jocelyne Chidiac)

FullSizeRender-7

Figure 1

 

Stiff shoulders, back and neck

The back of the body represents the Inhale- the ability to receive. Do this (Figure 2) if you or your student has any neck-related issues e.g. neck jut, back and down neck posture; stiff shoulders and stiff back.

 

Instructions: place your right hand on the junction where your neck meets your shoulders on the left side of the body. Place your right hand on your left hip fold.  Your hands are on  safety energy locks 11 & 15 respectively.

FullSizeRender-5

Figure 2

 

Throat, tongue, soft palate tension, nasality

Finger pose 5 (Figure 3) handles all of the above.

 

Instructions: touch the pad of your left thumb with the nail of your right third finger. Touch the nail of your left thumb with the pad of your right thumb. Hold this finger pose while you sing.

 

Figure 4

Figure 3

Pitch

You may do this (Figure 4) before you warm-up for a shorter warm-up time or during your cool-down after a prolonged period of voice use. These hand positions are known as 15/6 in Jin Shin Jyutsu.

 

Instructions: Place your right hand on your right hip fold. Hold the arch of your right foot with your left hand.

Figure 5

Figure 4

 

Have fun!

 

 

Grace Ng Ee Wern is a voice coach and teacher in Singapore. She is also a qualified Jin Shin Jyutsu Practitioner.

 

* Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy is meant to be complementary to allopathic medicine. Please seek professional help if you require medical assistance.

 

Photo credit: <a href=”http://www.flickr.com/photos/9416818@N05/25119192674″>Fishbach @ Les Hivernales</a> via <a href=”http://photopin.com”>photopin</a> <a href=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/”>(license)</a>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Listening with the Heart-a Body-Mind approach for Voice Teachers

“ I think therefore I am”. This statement by Rene Descartes proposes a Mind-Body split where a person’s Mind is the sum total of his or her being. We can see how this statement holds true in academic subjects such as Mathematics and Science but whither its application in the Performing Arts where the machines we deal with are living creatures of heart, flesh and bone?

 

Current voice pedagogy follows the scientific ways of Western medicine. We put something under the microscope. We examine it in the finest detail. We know how it works. We can recreate how it works. But do we really know it? Is a thing the really sum of its parts? Can we put a human being in an MRI or EEG and say that we know what it means to be human?

 

While we can ‘fix’ parts of the voice, we need to know that these broken parts arise from a mental, emotional and/or physical condition specific to a particular individual- his or her Truth. They are part of something bigger.

 

What do I mean? The voice is part of the body that is part of self-expression. The body is a beautiful cosmos that science has barely begun to understand. Self-expression finds many manifestations- dance, singing, painting, architecture, landscaping, there are as many ways to express the Self as there are stars in the sky.

 

If the voice is ‘stuck’, it means that expression of the Self through the vocal and respiratory mechanism is inhibited. Sometimes this inhibition may be at the conscious level. Most of the time, it’s at the subconscious level.

 

The subconscious is an interesting place where we keep our repressed memories. We remember that time our mother told use to keep our voice down. We remember the time that grandmum told as that ‘good girls don’t shout’. We remember the time when dad said that ‘boys don’t cry’. We take these memories and embody them. We become them. We can’t make those sounds. We’re afraid to make those sounds. We go to voice class and pay someone to give us the space, to help us find those parts of our voice, of ourselves, again.

 

If we’re unlucky, we get a teacher who says ‘we’re doing it wrong’. ‘Your abdominal muscles are tight’. ‘Your breath support is wrong’. Instead of the space, love and emotional support that we need, we get more reasons to hate ourselves.

 

What is ‘listening from the Heart’? ‘Listening from the Heart’ means listening to the entire person, not just to the voice. It means listening to what the student tells you about his or her day. It means listening closely to the lyrics of the songs that the student resonates with. It means watching the student’s body closely for signs of fear and anxiety (e.g. sweaty palms, a pale complexion, a hunch, a breathy voice, tight jaw etc.). It means working closely with parents and caregivers. It even means calling for an intervention when one is necessary.

 

Through the expression of the Body, the Voice reveals a plethora of clues as to what’s happening in the student’s life. As voice teachers, we stand at the front line of defense against any potential mental, emotional and physical disorders. It is our duty to help the student seek appropriate assistance where required.

 

Quiet your Mind. Open your Heart. Open your eyes. Open your ears. See the Truth of the beautiful being in front of you in its perfection. This body has come a long way- so many chances taken, so many chances missed; so many heartbreaks, so much joy; so much pain, so much happiness; so much love, so much hate. In this moment, all of it is perfect. This being is where he/she needs to be right now. Respect that. Respect all of that, not just the parts that you like. In your teaching, celebrate scars even as you celebrate beauty.

 

The Mind sees the parts. Love sees the totality.

 

Love always.

 

Grace Ng Ee Wern is a holistic health practitioner in Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy and voice teacher.

 

photo credit: <a href=”http://www.flickr.com/photos/83073191@N00/24619576843″>MAM_8599 copy</a> via <a href=”http://photopin.com”>photopin</a> <a href=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/”>(license)</a>

 

 

 

 

 

 

Simple Self-Help for Sore Throats

Here is some simple self-help for sore throats from Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy ®. Jin Shin Jyutsu is an ancient Japanese healing modality rediscovered by Master Jiro Murai. It was brought to the USA and to the world by his disciple Mary Burmeister.

Energy flows through the body. Disharmonies such as sore throats arise when the energy flow is disrupted. In Jin Shin Jyutsu, we place our hands on points in the body known as safety energy locks, in order to restore the flow of energy. When the energy flows, the disharmony goes. Place your hands in the positions indicated for 2-5 minutes to harmonize the flow of energy. If you can feel pulsation under your hands, remove them when pulsation under your hands subsides. Self-help for the left side of the body is indicated below. Feel free to change hand positions for the right side.

Laryngitis i.e. no voice, hoarse voice
Place your left hand on the junction where neck meets the shoulders (the end of the neck) on the left side of the body. Place your right hand on the chest in front of the first 3 ribs on the right side of the body.

Alternatively, place your right hand on the centre of your left thigh. Place your left hand on your right deltoid.

Pharyngitis i.e. muffled voice due to the throat swelling
Place your left hand on the junction where the neck meets the shoulders on the right side of the body. Hold your left index finger with your right hand.

Dry throat; Uncomfortable throat; Itchy Throat; Tired voice
Touch the pad under the left thumb (at the palm) with the other fingers of the left hand. Place the right hand on the junction where the neck meets the shoulders on the left side of the body.

Phlegm
Touch the palm sides of the middle fingers of both hands.

Pain in the throat
Place your left hand on the outer ankle on the left side of the body. Place your right hand on the inner ankle on the left side of the body.

Tight throat
Place your right hand on end of the left deltoid muscle. Place your left hand on the end of the right deltoid muscle.

Voice fatigue 2
Hold both sides of your head so that your fingertips are touching the centre of the top of the head.

Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy ® is complementary to allopathic medicine. It is not meant to replace allopathic medicine. Please seek a doctor if you require urgent medical help.

Be well.

Grace Ng Ee Wern is a Jin Shin Jyutsu Practitioner and voice teacher based in Singapore. She incorporates Jin Shin Jyutsu in her voice teaching for a seamless integration of Body, Mind and Voice.

Photo licence: (license)

Creative Expressions: Interview with artist/singer/dancer Alvin Koh

Alvin’s been a supporter of Vocalogy since our inception. Alvin is a classical singer, a  ballet enthusiast and dancer, and a trained visual artist.

We interviewed him to understand how he perceives creativity and how he manages his different creative interests.

 

GN (Grace Ng) : Let’s talk about your experience in visual art. Why does visual art appeal to you?

 

AK (Alvin Koh) : I find a blank piece of paper or canvas very liberating. It’s like a clean slate and I can do anything I want. It’s like being a god, being a creator. After all, what does a god do but create?

 

GN: Yes, that’s true. Creating something is a way of playing god.

 

AK: At first I didn’t think that way at the time but during my teens I felt that I just needed to create something. I started taking classes at the Nanyang Academy of Fine Arts (NAFA) when I was about 13 years old. I always liked to draw. I began with drawing still life. We perceive reality in 3 dimensions but to put it on paper which is 2 dimensions, requires a kind of skill in  translation.

 

GN: What is your favourite subject matter?

 

AK: At the moment, I like flowers, the sea, birds and even amorphous shapes. These interest me.

 

GN: How would you describe your current style?

 

AK: My current style these days begins with one shape. I start with a shape on canvas and see what images come to mind. Say if I want to draw a flower, I just splash paint on the canvas and then something comes.Usually it becomes something semi-figurative like a flower or a bird, maybe hills or even a face or part of the human anatomy. So I don’t have a fixed idea of what I want to paint but I do have any idea of the colours that I want to use.

 

GN: What makes you choose a certain colour?

 

AK: First, if I paint in the medium of watercolor, it makes sense to start with a lighter shade like yellow or orange because in that medium you work from light to dark. In a way, I find this medium unforgiving. I prefer working with acrylic because you can cover up your mistakes. In watercolor,  mistakes are there and irreversible. So the nature of the medium predisposes me to start with lighter colours such as orange, yellow or light red.

 

GN: Apart from the medium, are there any other considerations that determine your choice of colours?

 

AK: For me, it is also the spiritual aspect of the colours. So for example, blue or a certain shade of blue has a more spiritual tone or dimension to it. It is actually recognized by a lot of healers and mystics. For me, a tone of yellow may represent purity.

 

GN: What is your favourite colour? Do you have one?

 

AK: Royal blue. I can’t explain why I like it. It seems to me that a colour indicates a differ world, a world that is different from the one that we live in.

 

First Love

First Love

This is a pure watercolor. I didn’t start out with the idea to paint two persons. I started out splashing colour on the paper, with the lighter shade first and yellow is the lightest in a way. I started out with yellow and I slowly added the other colours to merge with it. In watercolour, there are techniques called ‘wet on wet’, ‘wet on dry’ and even ‘dry on dry’. I played with different techniques in this painting. This happens at a subsconscious level. I’ve been drawing hundreds and hundreds of paintings so this is all quite intuitive for me like waiting for the right moment to apply colour so that they fade at the right moment before I add colour. The timing is very important. When people on the street ask me, ‘why did you draw it this way’, I have stop for a while and think because this comes intuitively to me. It must be how it’s like with voice to you, you hear it and you can give an exercise without thinking.

 

GN: Yes I am quite intuitive now. But I had to look and refer to materials when I started out.

 

GN: So tell me more about your choreography. When did you get involved in dance and choreography?

 

AK:I started not too long ago when I had to choreograph a number for an event at Wesley Methodist Church. My friend needed a dancer and a choreographer. I chose a song that I was singing at the time, ‘You Raise Me Up’ for the dance number. My friend and I danced first and then I sang my song.

 

GN: How have you felt your dance has progressed through the years?

 

AK: I felt that I was a horrible dancer. When I started off I couldn’t catch the first beat. I like to think that I’ve improved a lot over the years. There’s always more room for improvement. I’m not born with a facility for ballet. I don’t have a good turn out. I’m not naturally flexible. I find it hard to bring my legs all the way up. I’m also very tall. For me to move to music that is created for people who are not that tall, I have to prepare my mind and body way before hand. People sometimes think I’m ahead of the beat but if I don’t do that, I can’t get to the next point on time. Anacruses are very important to me.

 

GN: When did you get interested in dance?

 

AK: When I was 21.

 

GN: Is there a connection between your work in dance and your work in painting?

 

AK: I saw how dancers moved and thought they looked beautiful. They were not only beautiful when they were dancing but they were beautiful when they were pausing as well. Grace, poise, the lines, the shapes they form-dance is definitely visual. While a dance is visual in nature, it is also more than visual at the same time. A dance is like many visuals combined. It is thousands and thousands of visuals combined. You move from a certain storyboard to another one. It’s like capturing something from point A to point B to point Z successively and smoothly. Unlike the visual arts, you are not restricted to capturing just that one moment in time. Ironically people are drawn to dance for that movement in time in the same way that visual arts capture a moment in time. Marketing materials for dance productions show that high moment in a dance where the dancer is dancing alone or with a partner.

 

GN: It’s like a flipbook where there’s all these pictures and then you take out one little page.

AK: Yes, something like that.

 

GN: How has dance affected your philosophy of Art?

 

AK: I felt that it is possible to condense all the different moments in dance onto a 2D platform if one is diligent. You can also map different moments in time onto the canvas. The interesting thing is that the canvas is just this blank white thing existing in one point in time, but you’re putting down all the moments in the time, all those stills, at the same time. That is very powerful. It may cause the viewer to be confused because there are so many things going on in the painting. They could feel ecstatic or troubled without being able to explain it. You see this a lot in non-figurative art, semi-abstract art. Some images are archetypal. They stir up a certain emotion. They might even convey situations that are universal or states of being that pertain to emotion but not restricted to it.

 

GN: Is this wordless expression a wordless communication? I would like to understand if you are talking about the medium, the process or the impact of the work?

 

AK: The work may also includes words and text by the way. I’m talking more about that primal quality of state of mind.

 

GN: Where do you think that comes from?

 

AK: I think there is a big reservoir of collective consciousness. It may also have been programmed genetically into us. Of course, I don’t rule out social programming.

 

GN: How does what you’ve mentioned about your visual art work and your dance work impact you as a singer? How does it impact your artistic choices?

 

AK: I dance to contemplate the suitability of my technical and phrasing choices such as legato or staccato and line.

 

GN:  Do you use Dalcroze Eurhythmics (Music and Movement) in your work as a singer?

 

AK: I don’t think that Dalcroze Eurthymics specifically and consciously addresses technical issues in singing. It doesn’t address the micro aspects of singing either such as small muscular movements and certainly not in a codified manner

 

GN: How and where does Singing fit into your creative consciousness?

 

AK: After I’ve sung something, I have an impulse to put that into painting. Singing, unless you record it, is ephemeral. In the visual arts, once you capture it, it’s there. The transient nature of Singing and even Dance creates this yearning in me to codify that visually.

 

Split Abstractions

Split Abstractions

 

AK: I sang before I did this. After I did this, I felt inspired to sing another song- ‘Wanderer’s Nachtlied 2’ by Schubert.

 

GN: Tell me about the first song that inspired the painting.

 

AK: I wasn’t singing a particular song. I was vocalizing when the images just came into my mind.

 

GN: What inspires these images? Is the process like word painting where you draw a line that goes up when the melody goes up? Is that what you are talking about or is it something else?

 

AK: It’s not a linear thought direction. The process is intuitive. It is not constrained by pitch although it can be.

 

GN: Can you explain the choice of colour in this work?

 

AK:The choice of colour was not directly influenced by the singing or vocalizing.After I got the images, I started painting. When I paint, I don’t sing. I chose sepia and grey because I find that the colours have a complementary quality. I didn’t use orange here because it would be too ‘in your face’. So I used shades of brown and blue.

 

GN: How did you plan the layout of the painting?

 

AK: There wasn’t any planning. The vocalizing just triggered the impulse to paint.

 

GN: Who is your favourite painter and why?

 

AK: William Turner. I find his colours so scintallating and yet subtle. His use of colours, especially how he places colours side by side, creates this euphoric effect in me. His work creates this moment that draws you in so much that you just have to keep looking. I also like the pastoral quality of his subject matter.

 

GN: Who is your favourite singer and why?

 

AK: I have a few. I like Sumi Jo, Kiri Te Kanawa. I like Yma Sumac, Robin Mano.

 

GN: Next. Favourite dancers?

 

AK: I like Sylvie Guillem. She is unlike any other dancer that I’ve seen. She dares to break boundaries. She was a gymnast. She was classically trained. She gave it up to do her own contemporary, autobiographical thing. She makes dance accessible. She dances with technical perfection and yet you can still relate to it.

 

GN: What makes a good Artist?

 

AK: You need to know your craft well. You need to be well-read and well-informed as to what’s going on. He or she dares to say and do something he or she personally feels compelled to, whether or not, it is acceptable by the majority after much deliberation and even at the risk of social and political persecution.

 

GN: Are you talking about an irrational compulsion to express oneself?

 

AK: I’m talking about a decision to express oneself that may not seem rational to the public. This doesn’t mean that they have to do something new. It may be just a matter of revisiting or rehashing something that has been done before yet remains undeveloped.

 

GN: This has been a fascinating interview. Thank you.

 

AK: Thank you.

Grace Ng is a voice teacher and holistic healer. She is based in Singapore and teaches with her studio Vocalogy.

Well-being and Good Grades: Jin Shin Jyutsu Student Survival Guide

Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy ® is a form of energy healing. The practitioner or the patient places their hands on two points on the body or holds a finger and/or toe. Simple, non-invasive, easy to use and best of all, free, it is my go-to method for releasing the voice in my voice studio.

 

It has many other uses. I’ve collected some quickies that your child can use to stay balanced and centered in the frenzy of activity that is the school term.

 

MIND

Spleen Organ Function Flow Quickie

Jin Shin Jyutsu adopts concepts of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The concept of organ function flows is one of them. Essentially an organ function flow is a pathway of energy through the body whose function is condensed in the organ that it is named after.

 

The Spleen flow is of particular interest. “ The Spleen is said to be the ‘residence’ of the Intellect (Yi). The Intellect resides in the Spleen and is responsible for applied thinking, studying, memorizing, focusing, concentrating and generating ideas…if the Spleen is strong, thinking will be clear, memory good and the capacity for concentrating, studying and generating ideas will also be good. If the Spleen is weak, the Intellect will be dull and thinking will be slow, memory poor and the capacity for studying, concentrating and focusing will all be weak. Conversely, excessive studying, mental work and concentration for sustained periods can weaken the Spleen.”(Macioca, Giovanni. ‘The Foundations of Chinese Medicine: A Comprehensive Text.” 3rd edition. 2015, Elsevier Ltd.)

 

To harmonize the Spleen flow with Jin Shin Jyutsu, get your child to place his or her right hand on the coccyx bone (tailbone) and the left hand on the left inner ankle. This can be easily done if you cross your legs. Place the hands at that position for 2 minutes. You do not need to apply any pressure or massage the area. Just placing your hands at the positions stated will suffice. If you can feel pulsation under your hands, wait until the pulsation subsides. Remove your hands. Subsequently, do the same but with the left hand on the coccyx bone and the right hand on the right inner ankle.

 

Alternatively, you may also have your child hold his or her thumb on the right and/or left for 2 minutes to harmonize the Spleen flow.

 

Apply as needed or once in the morning and once before bed. The Spleen flow can also help you fall asleep.

 

 

Safety energy lock 14

A safety energy lock is an invisible ball of energy in a specific location on the body. There are 26 safety energy locks in Jin Shin Jyutsu through which energy runs. If these locks become blocked, energy reverses resulting in emotional, mental and physical disharmonies.

 

Safety energy lock 14, located at the bottom ribs on both sides of the body, is also known as ‘balance, equilibrium and sustenance’. It is at the level of the Mind. It is easily disharmonized by excessive mental work. A disharmonized safety energy lock 14 may cause digestive disorders e.g. lactose intolerance, and vision issues e.g. shortsightedness. These extend to the emotional and mental realms as well. The person may not be able to digest new information and ideas. His or her vision may only be limited to what’s in front of him or her and not beyond.

 

To harmonize safety energy lock 14, have your child place his or her left hand over the right lower ribs. The right hand should be placed on the bend of the left arm (close to the elbow). Place your hands at the specified positions for 2 minutes or until pulsation under both hands subsides.

 

Reverse the hand positions (right hand over left lower ribs; left hand on the bend of right elbow) and hold for 2 minutes or until pulsation under both hands subsides.

 

Apply as needed.

 

BODY

The Third Method of Correction Quickie

The Third Method of Correction quickie gives you a quick boost of energy if you need it. Place the tips of your fingers of both hands on the top centre of your head. It may be easier to rest your elbows on a table while doing this quickie so that your arms don’t get tired.

 

Apply as needed e.g. during recess or other breaks.

 

Safety Energy Lock 15

Safety Energy Lock 15 is known as ‘wash our hearts with laughter’ and ‘the comedian’. It helps us to lighten up about situations. This is important when you’re under stress. I call it the ‘chillax’ pill. When we ‘chillax’ we can see situations as they are. We are not caught up in our emotions and can make decisions based on the facts in front of us.

 

Laughter is the best medicine and harmonizing safety energy lock 15 will help to boost your child’s immunity so that he or she doesn’t fall ill when the rest of his or her classmates are. Harmonizing this safety energy lock also helps reduce inflammation and is good for any conditions that end with ‘itis’ such as laryngitis and appendicitis.

 

To harmonize safety energy lock 15, wrap your thumbs around your hips. Place your fingers in your hip fold (where your legs meet your pelvis) for 2 minutes. If you can feel pulsation under your fingers, remove your fingers when pulsation subsides.

 

Apply as needed.

 

EMOTIONS

Holding your fingers

There are 5 disharmonizing Attitudes in Jin Shin Jyutsu. They are Worry, Fear, Anger, Sadness and Trying-to/Pretense. They form the acronym WFAST (‘get rid of Worry, FAST’). They are all represented on the fingers of the hand.

 

Holding the thumb helps us with Worry.

 

Holding the index finger helps us with Fear.

 

Holding the middle finger helps us with Anger.

 

Holding the ring finger helps us with Sadness.

 

Holding the pinky finger help us with Trying-to/ Pretense.

 

Hold the desired finger for about 2 minutes or as long as you like. In addition, each finger represents a Depth in Jin Shin Jyutsu, a biological building block e.g. bone, muscle, two organ function flows, 133,000 body functions and 5 safety energy locks. Holding the finger will harmonize all of this including the respective Attitude.

 

The Big Hug

Safety energy lock 26 sits under the arms. Harmonizing safety energy lock 26 calms us down. This is especially useful in stressful situations such as before an exam. In addition, it helps with digestion and will get you out of a food coma.

 

To harmonize safety energy lock 26, give yourself a big hug. Hold it for 2 minutes. A hug produces a psychological effect of feeling loved and protected, which also helps reduce stress and anxiety.

 

Wishing you and your children all the best in the new school year!

 

Grace Ng Ee Wern is a Voice teacher and Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy Practitioner who teaches with her private voice studio Vocalogy in Singapore.

 

Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy is complementary to Western medicine. Please see a doctor if you need urgent medical help.

 

 

 

 

photo credit: <a href=”http://www.flickr.com/photos/9650814@N04/3058831985″>Noa Strupler</a> via <a href=”http://photopin.com”>photopin</a> <a href=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/”>(license)</a>

Beat Jet Lag with Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy (R)

by Grace Ng Ee Wern

The movement and circulation of energy creates the body and maintains its wellbeing. Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy ® recognizes 17 individualized body function energies. Of these, 12 are organ function flows and are vital in distributing life energy through the body. An organ function flow may include a particular organ but is not limited to that organ. It is a flow of energy that encompasses the function of that organ. For example, the entire lung function flow that includes the lungs regulates the respiratory system. These organ flows flow into each other creating one unified, continuous circuit of energy that runs throughout the body.

 

Each organ function flow receives its most abundant supply of energy during a specific 2-hour period. Movement of the 12 organ function flows in the body throughout the day thus constitutes our innate biorhythm or body clock.

 

Travelling across time zones disrupts our body clock. This may result in jet lag. Reset your body clock by doing the organ function flow that is most active the time when you land in the new country.

 

Here are the times of greatest activity for each individualized organ function flow: –

 

Lung function energy                                           4am

Large intestine function energy                         6am

Stomach function energy                                   8am

Spleen function energy                                         10am

Heart function energy                                           12 noon

Small intestine function energy                          2pm

Bladder function energy                                       4pm

Kidney function energy                                         6pm

Diaphragm function energy                                 8pm

Umbilicus function energy                                  10pm

Gallbladder function energy                                12 midnight

Liver function energy                                            2am

 

Here are the short forms of the right flows for each of the organ function energies. Place your hands at the positions indicated for 5 minutes or until you feel better. If you can feel pulsation under your hands, wait for the pulsation to subside before removing your hands from the positions indicated.

 

The right side of the body represents a person’s current life situation while the left side represents a person’s past. As such, I feel that right quickies would be more appropriate for jet lag and have provided them below. Feel free, however, to reverse the hand positions for the left side if you feel that that is what your body needs.

 

Lung function energy: place your right hand on the bottom of your ribcage on the right side of the body. Place your left hand over your right collarbone.

 

Large intestine function energy: place your right hand on the junction where the neck meets the shoulders on the left side of the body. Hold your right index finger with your left hand.

 

Stomach function energy: place your right hand over your right collarbone. Place your left hand over your right cheekbone.

 

Spleen function energy: place your left hand over your coccyx bone. Place your right hand on the inner part of your right ankle.

 

Heart function energy: place your right hand on the junction where your neck meets your shoulders on the right side of the body. Hold your right wrist with your left hand.

 

Small intestine function energy: place your right hand on the junction where your neck meets your shoulders on the right side of the body. Place your left hand below the left collarbone.

 

Bladder function energy: place your right hand on the middle of your neck on the right side. Place your left hand under your right buttock.

 

Kidney function energy: sit comfortably with your right leg crossed over your left. Place your right hand over your pubic bone. This is where the fly would be if you are wearing jeans. Hold your right little toe with your left hand.

 

Diaphragm function energy: place your right hand over the lower ribs on the right side of your body. Wrap the fingers of your left hand around your left thumb.

 

Umbilicus function energy: place your right hand on the area above your left eyebrow. Place your left hand on the outer side of your right elbow.

 

Gallbladder function energy: Place your right hand on the middle of your neck on the right side of the body. Place your left hand on the area above your left eyebrow.

 

Liver function energy: Place your left hand on the back of your head, at the base of the skull, on the left side of your body. Place your right hand over your right collarbone.

 

 

In addition to the above, you can make a ring with your thumb and ring finger to invigorate the whole body. Hold this position for 2-5 minutes.

 

Bon voyage!

 

* Please note that Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy is meant to be complementary to and not a replacement for conventional medicine. Please seek medical treatment if you need it.

 

photo credit: <a href=”http://www.flickr.com/photos/97026642@N00/4901971670″>AP-BEU Pakistan International Airlines – PIA</a> via <a href=”http://photopin.com”>photopin</a> <a href=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/”>(license)</a>

Simple Jin Shin Jyutsu Self-Help for Haze-Related Illness (2). In English and Bahasa Indonesia

Here are some more things you can do for haze-related conditions from Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy ®:

 

Coughs, colds and to strengthen respiratory system & immune system: place your right hand on the bottom of your ribcage in the front. Place your left hand over your right collarbone.

 

To alleviate the effects of environmental pollution: place your right hand on the junction where your neck meets your shoulders. Place your left hand below your left collarbone.

 

To open your lungs to breathe: touch the nail of your right ring finger with your right thumb

 

Keep your hands at the positions indicated for 2-5minutes. Repeat every 8 hourly or as required.

 

The above are for the right side. The right side represents what is happening in your life at the moment. The left side represents your past. Reverse the hand positions for projects that began earlier in your life.

 

To detoxify your body

(Left side)

Step 1:hold the pinky toe on the left foot with your right hand. At the same time, hold the right thumb with your left hand.

Step 2: hold the ring toe on the left foot with your right hand. At the same time, hold the index finger on the right hand with the left hand.

Step 3: hold the middle toe on the left foot with the right hand. At the same time, hold the middle finger on the right hand with the left hand

Step 4: hold the index toe on the left foot with the right hand. At the same time, hold the ring finger on the right hand with the left hand

Step 5: hold the big toe on the left foot with the right hand. At the same time hold the pinky finger on the right hand with the left hand. Reverse for the left flow

 

Right side

Step 1:hold the pinky toe on the right foot with your left hand. At the same time, hold the left thumb with your right hand.

Step 2: hold the ring toe on the right foot with your left hand. At the same time, hold the index finger on the left hand with the right hand.

Step 3: hold the middle toe on the right foot with the left hand. At the same time, hold the middle finger on the left hand with the right hand

Step 4: hold the index toe on the right foot with the left hand. At the same time, hold the ring finger on the left hand with the right hand

Step 5: hold the big toe on the right foot with the left hand. At the same time hold the pinky finger on the left hand with the right hand.

Keep holding each finger and toe for 2-5minutes. Repeat all the steps every 8 hourly.

Jin Shin Jyutsu is complementary to conventional medicine. Please seek a doctor if you need urgent medical help. To learn more about Jin Shin Jyutsu, visit jsjinc.net

 

Berikut adalah beberapa hal yang bisa dilakukan untuk kondisi-kabut terkait dari Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Filsafat ®:

Batuk, Pilek dan memperkuat sistem pernapasan & sistem kekebalan tubuh: letakkan tangan kanan di bawah tulang rusuk Anda di depan. Tempatkan tangan kiri Anda di atas tulang selangka kanan.

Untuk mengurangi efek pencemaran lingkungan: menempatkan tangan kanan di persimpangan di mana leher Anda memenuhi bahu Anda. Tempatkan tangan kiri Anda di bawah tulang selangka kiri.

Untuk membuka paru-paru Anda untuk bernapas: menyentuh kuku jari manis kanan dengan ibu jari kanan Anda

Jauhkan tangan Anda di posisi diindikasikan untuk 2-5minutes. Ulangi setiap 8 jam atau sesuai kebutuhan.

Di atas adalah untuk sisi kanan. Sisi kanan mewakili apa yang terjadi dalam hidup Anda saat ini. Sisi kiri mewakili masa lalu Anda. Membalikkan posisi tangan untuk proyek-proyek yang dimulai awal dalam kehidupan Anda.

Untuk detoksifikasi tubuh Anda (Bagian kiri)

Langkah 1: tahan kaki pinky di kaki kiri dengan tangan kanan Anda. Pada saat yang sama, memegang ibu jari kanan dengan tangan kiri Anda.

Langkah 2: tahan kaki cincin di kaki kiri dengan tangan kanan Anda. Pada saat yang sama, tahan jari telunjuk pada tangan kanan dengan tangan kiri.

Langkah 3: memegang kaki tengah pada kaki kiri dengan tangan kanan. Pada saat yang sama, terus jari tengah pada tangan kanan dengan tangan kiri

Langkah 4: tahan kaki indeks pada kaki kiri dengan tangan kanan. Pada saat yang sama, terus jari manis di tangan kanan dengan tangan kiri

Langkah 5: pegang ibu jari pada kaki kiri dengan tangan kanan. Pada saat yang sama memegang jari kelingking di tangan kanan dengan tangan kiri. Membalikkan untuk aliran kiri

Sisi kanan

Langkah 1: tahan kaki pinky pada kaki kanan dengan tangan kiri Anda. Pada saat yang sama, terus ibu jari kiri dengan tangan kanan Anda.

Langkah 2: tahan kaki cincin di kaki kanan dengan tangan kiri Anda. Pada saat yang sama, tahan jari telunjuk pada tangan kiri dengan tangan kanan.

Langkah 3: memegang kaki tengah pada kaki kanan dengan tangan kiri. Pada saat yang sama, terus jari tengah di tangan kiri dengan tangan kanan

Langkah 4: tahan kaki indeks pada kaki kanan dengan tangan kiri. Pada saat yang sama, terus jari manis di tangan kiri dengan tangan kanan Langkah 5: pegang ibu jari di kaki kanan dengan tangan kiri. Pada saat yang sama memegang jari kelingking di tangan kiri dengan tangan kanan.

Tetap memegang masing-masing jari tangan dan kaki untuk 2-5minutes. Ulangi semua langkah setiap 8 jam.

Jin Shin Jyutsu melengkapi obat konvensional. Silahkan mencari dokter jika Anda perlu mendesak bantuan medis. Untuk mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang Jin Shin Jyutsu, kunjungi jsjinc.net.

(Translated by Budi Kristianto)

Simple Jin Shin Jyutsu Self-Help for Haze-Related Illness (1)

Jin Shin Jyutsu’s Thumb Function Energy is a perfect self-help for discomforts that arise in hazy conditions. This very simple step helps with coughing, phlegm, eye irritation, nose bleeding, nose clogging and throat discomfort. It also helps all acid conditions including acid reflux.

The following steps illustrate the Left Thumb Function Energy.

Step 1: Touch the fleshy area under your left thumb with the fingers of the same hand.

Step 2: Place your right hand on the place where your neck meets your shoulder on the left. Both of your hands should be on the left side of your body.

Step 3: Keep your hands there for 5 minutes. If you can feel your pulse under your hands, wait for the pulse to stop. Remove your hands.

The following steps illustrate Right Thumb Function Energy.

Step 1: Touch the fleshy area under your right thumb with the fingers of the same hand.

Step 2: Place your left hand on the place where your neck meets your shoulder on the right. Both of your hands should be on the left side of your body.

Step 3: Keep your hands there for 5 minutes. If you can feel your pulse under your hands, wait for the pulse to stop. Remove your hands.

In Jin Shin Jyutsu, the left represents the past. The right represents current lifestyle. If you’re coughing and your eyes are watering because of the haze, then you may want to do the Right Energy. If you have had chronic acid reflux, for example, you may want to do the Left Energy.

Jin Shin Jyutsu is complementary to allopathic medicine. Please see a doctor if you need urgent medical help

Be well!

photo credit: <a href=”http://www.flickr.com/photos/16229721@N00/4299878240″>IMG_7175</a> via <a href=”http://photopin.com”>photopin</a> <a href=”https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/”>(license)</a>

Body. Mind. Voice: an exploration into the psychosomatic implications of the emotions on vocal expression

Presentation by Grace Ng Ee Wern on 17 October 2015. Part of the Fringe Festival, International A Cappella Festival. Organized by the A Cappella Society Singapore

 

Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. Thank you for taking time out from your busy schedules to come here today.

 

Experiment: Speaking and Singing on a Deep Breath with Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy ®

 

Let’s do an experiment.

 

Bring the nails of the middle fingers of your right and left hand together. This is known as Mudra 8 in Jin Shin Jyutsu.

 

Sit and observe your breath.

 

This is how a deep breath feels like.

 

With the nails still touching, say ‘hunga-hunga’ at a medium loud volume.

 

That’s how it feels to speak with a voice that is clear and not stuck in the throat.

 

Now let’s extend that to a conversation.

 

With the nails still touching, turn to the person next to you and introduce yourself and how you got here using only ‘hunga’.

 

You have just conducted a conversation with a voice that is clear and not stuck in the throat.

 

Now let’s have that conversation in slow- motion. Imagine that you’re in one of those time- warps in sci-fi movies where everything goes really slow.

 

You have just sung in a voice that is clear, not stuck in the throat and on a deep breath.

 

How we speak affects how we sing

I believe most habits that hamper freedom in how we sing come from how we speak unless we are taught specific vocal behavior. Such behavior might be in the case of a student who is told not to raise his or her shoulders when breathing for singing and thenceforth sings with shoulders pressed squarely down.

 

The voicebox and the articulators need to move freely in singing. So what happens if you have a habitual speech pattern where you only use a limited range and have a specific way of speaking e.g. mumbling, and you try to sing?

 

The habituated muscles will not like it. They will resist by replicating habitual tension, which is what we hear as throat tension, nasality, tongue tension etc. My voice teaching involves slowing coaxing the habituated muscles out from what they like to do, and slowly introducing new behaviours at a rate that the body finds comfortable.

 

 

The problem

Why do we find it difficult to speak out and speak up?

 

I like watching little kids on trains scream, play and throw tantrums. They are so free. They run, around and scream at the top of their voices (high notes!). If you think that humans have a limited pitch range, listen to little kids.

 

Then these kids grow up. They stop yelling and screaming freely.

 

They start using less and less of their range until it becomes a monotone.

 

They become more and more self-conscious of making sound in public.

 

Why?

 

Because people have been socially conditioned not to raise their voices in public. “It’s not socially acceptable”. “What if you say something wrong?” “What if you get arrested?’

 

What if none of the above happens?

 

What if we’ve just spent valuable energy worrying about a situation that may not arise? What if there is no real reason to fear? We literally take fear into ourselves. Fear paralyzes. It paralyzes our minds, our bodies, our souls and finds its way into our voices.

 

 

There comes a point when people start to say “I have to express what I feel in my heart. This song, this speech, this is what I really feel in my heart. I can’t say or sing it the way that I want to.” This is when people take the trouble to look for a speech teacher or a singing teacher, to help them express themselves.

 

When they get to class, their conscious mind goes “yes, now I’ll be able to say what I want to say and get it out of my system.” However, their subconscious mind says ‘no’.

 

Worry says “no. What if we disturb the neighbours?”

 

Fear says “no. What if my voice cracks and people laugh at me?”

 

Anger says “no. What if we let people know how angry we are? It isn’t nice to be angry?’”

 

Sadness says “no. What if it makes me cry? Men don’t cry.”

 

Trying to/ Pretense says “no. I don’t want people to know the real me.”

 

Then the subconscious programming comes up with ways and means to stop you from expressing yourself through your voice.

 

Ways such as:

 

  • tightening your throat so that you can’t make sound;
  • tightening your jaw so that you can’t open your mouth;
  • tightening the tongue so that you can’t say anything;
  • pulling the soft palate down so that all the sound comes out through your nose and you sound as small as you possibly can;
  • tightening your abdominal muscles so you can’t breath deeply and make loud and/or sustained sounds;
  • limiting the movement in your ribs so that you can’t breathe and a whole host of other clever tensions to stop you from making the sound that expresses how you feel in your heart.

 

Finally if you can make sound functionally say if you’ve been properly technically trained to do so, the subconscious moves the resistance to the vocal folds so that you can’t make any sound at all. This is when you develop things like

 

  • Gastric reflux (1st depth)
  • Vocal nodules (2nd depth)
  • Vocal bleeding (3rd depth)
  • Spasmodic dysphonia (4th depth)
  • Structural issues of the larynx & esophagus (5th depth)

 

I will talk about the depths a little later.

 

 

Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy® and the Voice

 

Here’s where Jin Shin Jyutsu can help.

 

Jin Shin Jyutsu is a form of holistic healing rediscovered by sensei Jiro Murai at the turn of the 20th century. In Jin Shin Jyutsu, the human body is made of layers of energy of different densities. This has been proven by modern science in the discovery of atoms and other vibrating particles invisible to the human eye.

 

Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy ® recognizes 9 layers or depths of energy. 5 of these depths can be seen while the others are invisible. These 5 depths shape the human body. The 5th depth manifests as bone. The 4th depth manifests as muscle. The 3rd depth manifests as blood essence. The 2nd depth manifests as deep skin and the 1st depth manifests as surface skin.

 

Each of these depths may be disharmonized by a certain Attitude. The 1st depth is disharmonized by Worry. The 2nd depth is disharmonized by Sadness. The 3rd depth is disharmonized by Anger. The 4th depth is disharmonized by Fear and the 5th depth is disharmonized by Trying-to/Pretense.

 

Each of these depths has 2 organ flows- specific pathways of energy. The organ flows in Jin Shin Jyutsu are the same as those in traditional Chinese Medicine. The organ flows in the 1st depth are the stomach and spleen flow. The organ flows in the 2nd depth lung and large intestine. The organ flows for the 3rd depth are liver and gall bladder. The organ flows for the 4th depth are kidney and bladder and the organ flows for the 5th depth are heart and small intestine.

 

Energy shapes the body in an oval. It goes up the back and the down the front. If there are any blockages to the energy, the energy will back up, accumulate and/or get diverted from its path. It’s like what happens if there’s a traffic jam on the highway. Traffic will build up on the lanes behind the obstruction. Some clever folks will divert to the other lanes that are not blocked.

 

 

Indications of Depth disharmonies in vocal expression

 

I have noticed that there are specific physical markers that can be associated with disharmonized Attitudes as pertains to vocal production. These physical markers exist because of the nature of the depths, the organ flow paths and pathways of energy through the body.

 

Worry

When the 1st depth is disharmonized, there’ll be a lot of tension in the jaw because the stomach flow goes to the jaw. There may also be some tongue tension as well as the spleen flows goes to the tongue. Worried people may have issues in gaining independence of jaw and tongue in the making of vowels. Overall, the sound of Worry is muffled.

 

I get this a lot with the children I teach in private studio. From ages 0-9 years, the 1st depth is developing. This is also the age where they go to school and get exposed to the Singapore education system that worries them and you the parents, endlessly. So you wonder why our kids have bad diction. It’s not bad diction. It is repressed worry. Your kids are worried but they dare not or cannot express it. That’s what it is parents. Telling them to speak clearly is not the answer. Giving them the space where they can speak up without fear of judgment, criticism or punishment is.

 

To harmonize worry, hold your thumb. The right side of the body represents your current lifestyle. The left side of the body represents the past.

 

You may hold your thumb for as long as you like.

 

Sadness

When the 2nd depth is disharmonized, the chest looks frozen. There is very little movement in the chest when the person breathes. There may be pallor in the complexion. The sound of Sadness is garbled. While the tongue may be able to pronounce short vowels properly, it has difficulty keeping its position when vowels are elongated.

 

Sadness is a particularly significant Attitude to me. Sadness becomes depression that may lead to suicide if unchecked. Sadness, being of the 2nd depth, is the root of cancer as the 2nd depth governs deep skin.

 

Examinations make school-going kids’ bodies sad. I’ve seen quite a lot of this in my studios. Fortunately all you have to do to harmonize Sadness is to hold your ring finger.

 

Anger

Anger is an insidious emotion. It is hidden. A person with repressed Anger in vocal expression will try his or her best to hide it. Anger shows up as limited movement in the back of the upper ribs and a swallowed sound. In everyday speech, the person may be soft-spoken. He or she may mumble or decide to talk very little if at all. There may be some nasality as the sound is diverted through the nostrils.

 

Hold your third finger to harmonize Anger.

 

Fear

The sound of fear is throaty. The 4th depth governs muscles. 4th depth disharmony shows up as excessive muscular tension. The muscles in the throat contract to prevent the person from making sound. This may cause sharpness in pitch when singing. Fear paralyzes. There may be tension in the back of the body, tension in the abdominal muscles and muscular tension all over the body. In particular, shoulders may be pulled up. There may be limited movement in the upper back ribs and the back of the neck may be tight. The person looks like a deer in headlights.

 

Trying-to/Pretense

5th depth disharmony shows up primarily in the chest. I perceive 2 C-shaped like movement limitations in the upper chest. The limited rib movement of 5th depth disharmony affects the production of loud sounds such as the mix and the belt. The sound of Trying-to/ Pretense is again throaty but now the tension is in the digastric muscles.

 

These Attitudes are sometimes stand-alone in a body. Sometimes they are layered like an onion. Right now in my studio, when I peel away Sadness, I get Anger as the Attitude underneath. Each body story is different. We all come from different places. The important thing is that we are in a place where we are willing to make change.

 

Up the back and down the front

Now we come back to the concept of energy going up the back of the body and down the front of the body as it pertains to pains, aches and soreness.

 

So energy comes up the back of the body and goes down the front. If there is a block, energy backs up, accumulates or goes somewhere else. Where energy backs up and keeps backing up, you get pain and accumulations such as fat deposits.

 

The source of the pain is usually not the cause of the pain. It is the effect of a cause that is somewhere else in the body. If there is a traffic jam, the obstruction is not at the place where traffic has stopped. It is further down the road.

 

In Jin Shin Jyutsu, if the pain, ache, deposit or soreness is at the back of the body, you go to the front of the body to release it. If the pain is at the front of the body, you go to the back of the body to release it.

 

To release energy stuck at the back of the body, put your thumb on the palm side of the middle finger of the other hand. This may be on the right or the left hand. I tell my students to keep the thumb there for about 2 minutes. You can keep it there for as long as you like.

 

How do you release pain in the front of the body? You go to the back. Place your thumb on the nail side of the middle finger of the other hand. Keep it there for 2 minutes or for as long as you like.

 

Let’s apply the principles to some everyday situations.

 

You have pain in your shoulders. Where do you go? The front. What do you do? Thumb on palm side of third finger.

 

You have a pull in your calf muscle. Where do you go? The front. What do you do? Thumb on palm side of third finger.

 

You have fat accumulating in your belly area. Where do you go? You can go to both the front and the back. The fat is accumulating in the front. The front of the accumulation is blocked. You can release it with thumb on palm side of third finger. You can also go to the back and release it with thumb on the nail side of the third finger.

 

Please note that Jin Shin Jyutsu Physio-Philosophy ® is complementary to Western medicine. If you need emergency medical help, please do not hesitate to get it.

 

Now we come to the part of the presentation where I show you all the above in practice.

 

Teaching Demonstration

 

Concluding words

Thank you so much for taking the time off your busy schedules to attend my presentation. I hope you take away some useful information for your every day lives. Be well!

 

 

Readings

  • The Touch of Healing: Energizing Body, Mind & Spirit with the Art of Jin Shin Jyutsu ® (1997, Bantam Books). Alice Burmeister & Tom Monty

 

  • Introducing Jin Shin Jyutsu ® IS books 1-3 (1981, Jin Shin Jyutsu ® Inc). Mary Burmeister

 

  • Health is in Your Hands: 51 Flash Cards for the Hands-on Practice of Jin Shin Jyutsu ® (2014, Upper West Side Philosophers Inc.). Waltraud Rigger-Krauser

 

  • Vocalising with Ease: a self-improvement guide (1996, Osterreuche Akademie der Wissenschaften). Linda Rammage

 

  • Character Analysis (3rd edition) (1972, Farrar Straus and Giroux) pp 10-20. Wilhelm Reich